Learning the identification way of textile fabrics for your family
(1) Main method
Seeing: Use the visual effect of the eye to see the light and shade of the fabric, Imitation silk fabric the dyeing condition, the surface roughness, and the appearance characteristics of the tissues, lines and fibers.
Hand touch: The tactile effect of the hand is used to feel the softness, hardness, smoothness, roughness, fineness, elasticity, coolness and warmth of the fabric. The strength and elasticity of fibers and yarns in the fabric can also be detected by hand.
Hearing, Nose Smelling: Hearing and smelling are helpful for judging the raw materials of certain fabrics. Such as silk has a unique silk sound; different types of fiber fabrics have different tearing; acrylic and wool fabrics have different odors, etc.
(2) Four steps
The first step is to initially distinguish the major categories of fibers or fabrics
The second step is to further judge the type of raw materials by the sensory characteristics of the fibers in the fabric
The third step is to make a final judgment based on the sensory characteristics of the fabric
The fourth step is to verify the judgment result. If you do not grasp the judgment, you can use other methods to verify. If you make a mistake, you can perform sensory identification again or combine it with other methods for identification.
Way:2 Combustion identification
Combustion characteristics of common textile fibers
1 Cotton fiber, burning in the event of fire, burning fast, producing a yellow flame, odor; slightly gray smoke, can continue to burn after leaving the fire, there is still sparks after the flame is extinguished, but the duration is not long; burning After being able to maintain the original velvet shape, the hands are easily broken into loose ash, the ash is gray fine powder, and the charred part of the fiber is black
2 Hemp fibres, burning fast, softening, not melting, not shrinking, producing yellow or blue flames, having the odor of burning grass; leaving the flames to continue burning rapidly; little ash, light gray or white straw gray like
3 wool, contact flame does not immediately burn, first curl, smoke after, and then the fiber foaming combustion; the flame was orange yellow, burning slower than the cotton fiber, leaving the flame immediately stop burning, not easy to continue burning, with burning hair and The odor of feathers; ash can not maintain the original fiber, but was amorphous or spherical shiny dark brown brittle, with a finger pressure crushed, a large number of ash, burning odor
4 Silk, which burns slowly, melts and curls, shrinks when burned, has a stench of burning hair; flashes slightly when leaving the flame, slowly burns, sometimes self-extinguishing; ash is a dark brown crispy ball, with fingers A pressure is broken
5 Viscose fiber, combustion characteristics are basically similar to cotton, but viscose fiber burning speed is slightly faster than cotton fiber, less ash, and sometimes not easy to maintain the original shape, viscose fiber will emit a slight buzz when burning
Way3:Density gradient method
Density gradient identification process is: first configure the density gradient liquid, the configuration method is to properly mix two light and heavy liquids with different density and can be mixed with each other, generally using xylene as light liquid, carbon tetrachloride as The heavy liquid, by means of diffusion, diffuses the light liquid molecules and the heavy liquid molecules at the interface of the two liquids, so that the mixed liquid forms a density gradient liquid having a continuous change from top to bottom in the density gradient tube. Standard density pellets are used to calibrate the density values for each height. Then, the textile fiber to be tested is subjected to pretreatment such as deoiling, drying, etc. to make a small ball, and the ball is successively put into a density gradient tube to measure the density value of the fiber and compare with the standard density of the fiber so as to identify the fiber. species. Since the density gradient fluid will change with temperature, it is important to maintain a constant temperature of the density gradient fluid during testing.